Self-Realization through Yoga Meditation of the Yoga Sutras, the contemplative insight of Advaita Vedanta, and the intense devotion of Samaya Sri Vidya Tantra

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Meditation Cushions from
Integrating 50+ Varieties
of Yoga Meditation

by Swami Jnaneshvara Bharati 

The sages of the Himalayas
practice a variety of methods,
systematically moving inward, from
gross to subtle, to subtler, and subtle most.

Index of this web page: 
Categories of meditation
4 stages of meditation with object 
4 types of objective engrossment 
Other divisions 

Methods of meditation
Tranquility, Non-attachment, One-pointedness 
10 indriyas  God 
Faith, energy, memory, samadhi, and knowing 
4 attitudes towards people  Breath  
Subtle senses, States of mind, Dreaming and Sleep 
Whatever is pleasant  Smallest and largest  
5 kleshas  Yamas and niyamas  5 elements  5 vayus 
Sushumna, Kriya, and Kundalini 
Mantra  Chakras and Mantra   
4 functions of mind  Turiya 

See also these articles
Yoga Sutras 
Types versus Stages of meditation 
Five stages of meditation 
Seven skills for meditation 
Four steps of meditation 
Four complementary practices 

Learn a variety of synergistic methods: For thousands of years, the sages of the Himalayas have been running experiments in meditation and systematizing that process. The student does not learn only one method of meditation, but practices a variety of meditation methods (though the processes are the same), systematically going from gross to subtle, to subtler, and finally to subtle most.

It is extremely useful, if not imperative, 
to understand that there are 
stages to meditation. See: 
Types versus Stages of meditation

Meditate at all levels: In other words, the yoga meditation of the Himalayan tradition is a complete meditation system, dealing with all the levels of your being. Exploring all of those levels involves meditation in yoga, tantra, and vedanta. Eventually it leads to the direct experience of the Absolute reality, the Self, that is not subject to death, decay, or decomposition. 

Individual meditations are parts of the whole: By contrast, most systems or schools of meditation utilize only one method of meditation, such as emphasizing either sensory awareness, breath, mental witnessing, or mantra, while ignoring the others. In yoga meditation, these are not separate schools of meditation. Rather, these individual meditations are parts of the whole, or steps along the way, within the greater process of meditation that systematically leads to the Realization of the eternal center of consciousness. 

A meditation object is revealed and transcended: As one systematically moves attention inward, a process of discrimination (viveka) occurs, whereby the various objects of meditation are revealed as not-self rather than Self, and are set aside as not being the goal of meditation. One by one, object after object, level after level, is experienced, explored, and seen to be not the ultimate object of pursuit. Through this inner witnessing, non-attachment gradually comes in relation to each of the objects, and each of the levels, eventually leading to the realization of the eternal center of consciousness. 

Categories of meditation: Below is a summary of the general categories of meditation, followed by some of the specific methods within the yoga meditation system of the Himalayan sages. This paper is rather brief and succinct, and thus, the explanations may not have the depth for actual practice. 

The complex is really simple: While it can look complex, it is important to remember that there is a simplicity to the process, in that you gently move through only a few levels or stages of practice on the journey to the eternal center. It is not necessary that one do all of the meditations, at each of the levels. The systematic journey inward, to and through the levels, is the key to progress. It means knowing yourself at all levels, not that you know each and every possible object at each of those levels. 


Categories or stages of Meditation: 

Vast breadth and depth: The categories described below are extremely broad and extremely deep. Because of that, it can be difficult to understand when reading this.

There are many schools and systems 
of meditation, but those many methods 
deal with only a few stages of practice, 
and only a few levels of reality.

All meditations are within these few categories: The most important point is that, of the many individual types of meditation, regardless of school or system, all meditations are part of these few levels or categories listed below, and that the process to enlightenment is one of expanding awareness through these few layers. 

With a little effort, you can easily think of a few examples of different types of meditation and see how, and where these fit in the systematic process of progressing inward through the levels to the center of consciousness. Remember, the process of yoga meditation of the Himalayan sages is thorough, yet has an underlying simplicity. 

Four types of meditation with an object: There are four stages of meditation in which there is a support, or object on which the mind rests during meditation (Samprajnata). Savitarka, Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita are the four general categories of meditation on an object, leading to the fully absorbed state of Samadhi. 

Meditation without an object: Beyond those four is a stage of meditation and Samadhi where there is no support on which the mind rests (Asamprajnata).

There are only four stages 
of meditation on an object, 
though there are 
numerous choices of objects.

See also the web page on 
Five stages of meditation

With an object of meditation (see Yoga Sutra 1.17
Savitarka  Savitarka meditation relates to concentration on a gross object while still accompanied with other activities of the mind. It involves the co-mingling of three things: the object itself, the word or name we give to the object, and knowledge related to the object. There are many different gross objects on which one might meditate at the Savitarka level. 
Savichara  Savichara meditation relates to subtle objects, after the gross have been left behind. It is a deeper exploration involving the subtleties of matter and the subtleties of the senses. There are far fewer choices of subtle objects on which to meditate. As stated in the Yoga Sutras, at some point, "the knowables become few (4.31)." All of the complexity is seen to emerge from simplicity. 
Sananda  Sananda meditation emphasizes the still subtler state of bliss in meditation. In this state, the concentration is free from the gross and subtle impressions that were at the levels of Savitarka and Savichara. 
Sasmita  Sasmita meditation focuses on I-ness, which is even subtler, as it relates to the I that is behind, or witness to all of the other experiences. 
Without an object of meditation (see Yoga Sutra 1.18
Asamprajnata  Asamprajnata is meditation without an object, or objectless.  (Savitarka, Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita are all Samprajnata, which is meditation with a support or object on which the mind can focus. Asamprajnata is without such a support or object on which the mind can rest. )

Four types of objective engrossment: The first two stages listed above (Savitarka and Savichara) have either a gross or subtle object. Within that, they each have a further subdivision at those first two levels, once the mind has been purified. When the mind is purified, there is not only concentration, but also a sort of engrossment (Samapatti) occurs, which is likened to a crystal taking on the color of the object it is near. (see Yoga Sutras 1.40-1.51)

All meditations on an object are within these four: All objective meditations, regardless of system or school of meditation occur in one of these four. Beyond that are the deeper practices of Sananda, Sasmita, and Asamprajnata.

There are only four types 
of engrossment on an object
though there are 
numerous choices of objects.


Relating to gross objects  

Savitarka Samapatti

Four categories of meditation were mentioned above (Savitarka, Savichara, Sananda, and Sasmita). When the mind becomes concentrated and the extraneous thought patterns begin to subside (as a result of the persistent practice of one-pointed meditation), the mind can then be not only concentrated, but also more thoroughly engrossed in the object of meditation. It is a sort of inner expansion of attention on the object of meditation, and that engrossment is called Samapatti. The first level of that engrossment is Savitarka Samapatti, meaning that Vitarkas, or gross thoughts, still exist while the engrossment increases. 

Nirvitarka Samapatti 

Nirvitarka is concentration on a gross object in which there are no longer any extraneous gross level activities in the mind because of the memory having been purified. Notice that with Savitarka, there was not only meditation on the object, but also there were the other thought streams in the mind, though these were not distracting due to vairagya (non-attachment). Here, in Nirvitarka, these thought patterns have subsided. 

Relating to subtle objects  

Savichara Samapatti 

Beyond both Savitarka and Nirvitarka is Savichara. With Savichara, the gross thoughts (Vitarkas) have subsided, but there are still subtle thought patterns, which are called Vichara. Savitarka Samapatti and Savichara Samapatti are similar processes, though one is on gross thoughts, while the other relates to subtle thoughts. 

Nirvichara Samapatti 

Nirvichara is concentration in which there are no longer any extraneous gross or subtle activities in the mind. This purity of mind comes through the processes of meditation and non-attachment. In Nirvichara Samapatti, the engrossed mind completely takes on the coloring of the subtle object of meditation, much like a pure crystal will take on the coloring of whatever color it is near. With increasing mastery of Nirvichara, the eternal Self begins to shine for the aspirant. 

Other divisions or categories of meditation are used to further describe the subtleties between specific meditations:  

Without a trace  
Alinga / Linga Alinga means that the meditation on objects has become so subtle that there is now, no longer a trace of the object. The realization of that object has taken the meditation back to its unmanifest nature. This Alinga state is in contrast to the Linga state, in which there is trace, mark, or indicator, however subtle that may be. 
With seed or without seed 
Sabija Sabija meditation means meditation with seed (Sa means with; bija means seed). The objects of meditation in the four categories of Savitarka, Savichara, Nirvitarka, and Nirvichara (described above) all have a seed form of each object. Thus, they are called Sabija meditations. (Note that Sabija and Nirbija are companion ways of differentiating meditation categories.)
Nirbija  Nirbija meditation means meditation without seed (Nir means without; bija means seed). Thus, meditation without these seeds of the object is called Nirbija. (Note that Sabija and Nirbija are companion ways of differentiating meditation categories.)
Observer, observing, and observed 
Grahya  There are three parts in the process of observation or meditation: 1) an observer, 2) the process of observing, and 3) the object being observed. When the mind takes on the qualities of an object observed, this is Grahya meditation.  
Grahana  When the mind wraps itself around the process of observing rather than some other object, this is Grahana meditation. 
Grahita  When the focus is neither on the object or the process, but rather, the observer itself, this is Grahita meditation. 
Filled with truth 
Ritambhara With the mastery of the Nirvichara meditations described above, there comes a meditative insight that is filled with Truth, Essence, or Essential Knowing. That is called Ritambhara. 


Some of the specific Methods and Objects of meditation: 

Tables below show methods and objects: In the tables below are specific methods and objects practiced in Yoga Meditation. Many of the objects of meditation described below are part of the process of purifying the mind. These go along with, and support the deeper aspects of meditation that eventually take you beyond all objects, to a more profound meditation that pierces the levels of your being.

There are two choices to make:
What is the object focused on, if any?
Where is the space where you hold that focus?

Two decisions to make: In Yoga Meditation, there are two important choices. First, is the choice of the object on which you will meditate, and second, is the choice of the location where you will focus your attention. 

  • Object: The object of meditation may be one of many gross or subtle objects. Each brings its own form of insight and progress. 

  • Space: The space of meditation may be the whole of the body, one point, such as breath at the nostrils, or within one of the chakras. 

Holding mind in one space is a key: Regulating the mind by holding it within one space, in addition to focusing on one object, is a real key to progress in meditation. Training the mind to remain in a space also trains it in regard to time; in other words, to be in both the here as well as the now. It is that here and now concentration that reveals the depths of meditation and samadhi. 

Best to use a single object: It is best to have a single object of meditation that is always the final stage of your meditation practice. For example, it may be the feel of breath at the nostrils, or it might be a mantra, a religious symbol, or a point of light that is attended to in a specific chakra, such as the heart center or the eyebrow center. Or, the final object of your meditation sessions may, for some time, be one of the many meditations described below. By continually coming home to this point of meditation each time you sit, meditation will deepen nicely. 

Meditations below are complementary: However, all of the other meditations below are complementary aspects of inner investigation, and enhance your meditation on that one main object. 

These stabilize and purify mind: They stabilize and purify the mind, and are extremely useful to practice. They may be done as separate practices, at different times, or may be done at regular meditation time, before your final stage of practice, where you meditate on that single object that is always followed (such as breath, mantra, religious symbol, or point of light mentioned above).

The various objects of meditation 
are explored and understood, 
and then coordinated and integrated, 
allowing attention to go ever subtler.

Keep in mind the few categories: When reading through the descriptions of the meditations below, it is good to gently keep in mind the few categories of meditation described in the section above. Then it is easier to see the way in which the individual meditations gradually, systematically move awareness inward, from gross to subtle, subtler, and subtle most. 

Remember there are only a few levels: Also, recall the simple principle of knowing yourself at all levels. When you start to look at what it means to "know yourself," there can be an anxious feeling from that complexity, even though there really is an underlying simplicity. This simplicity emerges with time and practice. 

Tranquility, Non-attachment, and One-pointedness
Stithi / Tranquility Meditation on the state of stable tranquility, which is Stithi. The cultivation of this state in meditation is a key part of the two main practices of yoga meditation, which are Abhyasa (practice leading to Stithi) and Vairagya (non-attachment). 
Vairagya / 
Vairagya means non-attachment. Vairagya is the companion of Ekagra (one-pointedness). With meditation for practicing Vairagya, the meditator learns to consciously witness the habitual stream of thoughts in the mind, learning to remain undisturbed, unaffected, and uninvolved. 
Ekagra / 
Ekagra means one-pointedness. For meditation, the noisy, rambling, troubled, or distracted mind needs to be stabilized and trained to not get drawn into those mental actions. To stabilize the mind, one practices one-pointed meditation, or Ekagra. There are many objects on which the mind might be trained, and in the yoga meditation tradition of the Himalayan sages this is chosen carefully depending on the needs and predispositions of the particular aspirant. It may be a gross, tangible object, a mantra, or a subtle object or essence, and it may be religious or not religious in nature.
Ten Indriyas:  
Karmendriyas  There are five types of meditation on the Karmendriyas.  Karmendriya meditation is the practice of observing, understanding and training each the five means of expression known as the karmendriyas. These five are like the five exit doors of one's being (like doors in a building), and are the expression through: 1) elimination, 2) procreation, 3) motion, 4) grasping, and 5) communication (or speech). They operate in sequence from the lower of the five chakras. The aspirant consciously meditates on one of the five means, noticing the way in which this gate operates between the outer and inner worlds. The meditation is done both as meditation in action and as seated meditation. (Some schools of meditation focus on aspects of Karmendriya meditation under the name mindfulness meditation.) 
Jnanendriyas  There are five kinds of meditation on the Jnanendriyas. These are meditation on the cognitive senses of: 1) smelling, 2) tasting, 3) seeing, 4) touching, and 5) hearing, which operate sequentially from the lower five chakras. Each of these Jnanendriyas is an individual process to be explored as a meditation practice. Meditation on the Jnanendriya of touch, the sensory experience connecting the mind and the body, is currently a popular form of meditation. The same kind of meditation is also done on the other senses, and in turn, the aspirant comes to see the way in which the five Jnanendriyas, along with the five Karmendriyas are the means of the indweller relating to the external world. Beyond meditation on the ten Indriyas, the aspirant truly begins the inner journey of meditation that is subtler than the senses. 
God or creative force
Ishvara pranidhana Meditation on the Lord or creative force. 
Five companion practices 
Shradha  Meditation on faith or cultivating the certain feeling of following the path with conviction. (Shradha and the 4 which follow are 5 companion practices, including Virya, Smriti, Samadhi, and Prajna.)
Virya  Meditation on strength, energy, or conviction to follow the spiritual life and do the practices of meditation. 
Smriti  Meditation on memory of the feeling associated with previous attainments in meditation or spiritual practice. 
Samadhi  Meditation on the nature of the state of samadhi. 
Prajna  Meditation on the supreme knowledge arising from the practices of meditation and samadhi. 
Four attitudes
Maitri  Meditation on friendliness, love, and kindness, as if those feelings are directed towards people who are also happy or joyful. (This and the next three are 4 attitudes for meditation.)
Karuna  Meditation on compassion and mercy, as if towards those who are suffering, or are experiencing pain or sorrow. 
Mudita  Meditation on gladness, happiness, or delight, as if towards those who are virtuous, generous, or benevolent. 
Upeksa  Meditation on equanimity, or a positive disregard or indifference, as if in relation to feelings towards those who are doing acts of evil, vice, or ill will. 
Prana / Breath  Meditation on the energy of prana as expressed through exhalation, inhalation, and transition between them. 
Subtle senses, States of mind, Dreaming and sleep
Vishayavati Meditation on the nature of higher, subtler sense perception. It is meditation on the nature of the subtle senses themselves, not merely on the objects towards which senses might be directed. 
Vishoka  Meditation on a state of mind that is sorrow-less and pain free, and which is lucid, illuminated or filled with light. This meditation is sometimes experienced in the cave of the spiritual heart. 
Vitaraga  Meditation on the state of mind that no longer has any attachment. It may be meditation on one's own mind, as if the mind were free of attachment, or it may be meditation on the nature of another person's mind whom is thought to have attained freedom from attachment. 
Swapnanidrajnana Meditation on the states of dreaming (Swapna) and sleeping (Nidra). This is not meditation on the content of those states. Rather, it is meditation done in the waking state, where the object on which the meditation is done is the flowing stream of the other two levels of consciousness. It is this flow itself that is the focus of meditation. 
Whatever is pleasant, which brings calm and stability
Yatha-abhimata Meditation on whatever the mind finds pleasant brings a state of calm and stability to the mind. While this is a very broad practice, one needs to choose wisely the object of meditation. The point of this meditation is that the gentle focusing on a vast range of objects will lead the mind in the direction of tranquility, and thus bring the deeper meditations within reach. 
The smallest and the largest
Parama-anu  Meditation on the smallest, most atom-like object. This ability of meditation, along with the ability to meditate on the largest is a sign of the mastery of the process of meditation. 
Parama-mahattva Meditation on the largest, the infinite. This ability of meditation, along with the ability to meditate on the smallest is a sign of the mastery of the process of meditation. 
Five kleshas
Kleshas  Meditation on the colored or afflicted impressions in the field of the mind. Through meditation the five forms of kleshas (below) are first in an active form, then distanced somewhat, then attenuated in strength, then brought back to a seed memory form, and finally burned up in the inner fire of meditation. 
Avidya  Avidya means ignorance, not in the sense of stupidity, but of not seeing, much like the ability to ignore, which is the root of ignorance. Avidya is the field out of which the other four Kleshas grow. Meditation on Avidya is on one of four principles of ignorance: 1) mistaking the temporary to be forever lasting, 2) the impure for the pure, 3) the painful for the pleasureful, and 4) that which is not self to be the self. Meditation on these four brings a discrimination between what thoughts and actions are useful and not useful, as well as the weakening of their coloring and control.  
Asmita  Asmita is a very fine level of individuality or ego, meaning the way thought impressions become colored by I-am-ness, so as to mistakenly think that this thought pattern or memory is related to me. Meditation on Asmita gradually reveals the individuality, standing alone, underneath all of the attractions, aversions, and fears. 
Raga  Meditation on the Klesha of attachment, or drawing towards. This meditation reveals the way in which attachment is related to the desire to repeat a previous action. By meditation on the process of attachment itself, one gains an increasing degree of mastery over Raga itself, which is a key to all of the individual attachments that veil the Truth. 
Dvesha  Meditation on the Klesha of aversion, or pushing away. Aversion is related to the desire to avoid the repetition of a previous consequence. Similar to the case with the attachments, meditation on the process of aversion also brings a mastery over Dvesha, and a reduction of the veiling over Truth. 
Abhinivesha  Meditation on the clinging to life, or the associated fear of death. The first four Kleshas, colorings, or afflictions of ignorance, I-ness, attachment, and aversion build a matrix of self-identity. Meditation on this clinging to life and fear of death brings a freedom and willingness to more thoroughly meditate on, and reduce the negative effects of the other Kleshas. To be aware of, to meditate on, and to reduce such fear is the first step of the rest of the process. 
Yamas and niyamas
Yamas  The Yamas are the practices of non-harming (Ahimsa), truthfulness (Satya), non-stealing (Asteya), resting in the creative force (Brahmacharya), and non-possessiveness (Aparigraha). These are not only practiced in daily life, but are each explored internally in Yoga meditation.  
Niyamas  The Niyamas are the observances of purity of mind and body (Saucha), cultivation of contentment (Santosha), training the senses (Tapas), self enquiry (Svadhyaya), and surrender (Ishvara Pranidhana). These too are not only practiced, but are also objects for exploration in Yoga meditation. 
Five elements 
Bhutas  Meditation is done on each of the five gross elements, or Bhutas, which constitute the body. The elements are earth (Prithivi), water (Apas), fire (Agni/Tejas), air (Vayu), and space (Akasha). 
Tattvas  Meditation is also done on each of the five subtle elements, or Tattvas. These are the more internal counterparts, and source of the gross elements, or Bhutas, which constitute the body. The elements are earth (Prithivi), water (Apas), fire (Agni/Tejas), air (Vayu), and space (Akasha). 
Five vayus
Vayus  Prana flows in five main flows in the subtle body. Each of these are objects of meditation and inquiry. They are Prana Vayu, Udana Vayu, Apana Vayu, Vyana Vayu, Samana Vayu. When the universal energy force of Prana enters the physical body, it divides into five parts, or airs (one of the five elements of earth, water, fire, air, and space). Each of these five are explored as separate objects in Yoga meditation. The Vayus have a depth of insight that can only be attained from meditation.  
Prana Vayu  Meditation on Prana Vayu involves the area between the heart and the throat and involves anything coming into the body, including inhalation, swallowing, taking in of sensory impressions, or assimilation of food.  
Udana Vayu  Meditation on Udana Vayu is in the opposite direction of Prana Vayu, and involves exhalation and upward expulsion, including the force behind speech. 
Apana Vayu  Meditation on Apana Vayu is below the navel to the area of the rectum. It is the life force that has to do with the ability of the system to eliminate or throw off what is no longer useful. 
Vyana Vayu  Meditation on Vyana Vayu is throughout the body, as it has no fixed location. It is the energy that coordinates all of the other functions of the body, including senses, movement, muscles, and nervous system. 
Samana Vayu  Meditation on Samana Vayu focuses on the area between the navel and the heart, and controls the processes related to digestion. Like separating nutrients and waste from food, it also separates useful and not useful thoughts. 
Sushumna, Kriya, and Kundalini 
Sushumna  Sushumna is the central energy channel within the subtle body, that goes from the root chakra upwards to the crown of the head. Meditation on Sushumna is an extremely important part of Tantra and Yoga meditation, and is sometimes taught under the names Kriya yoga or Kundalini yoga. One may meditate by flowing the mind with the breath between two or more chakras, or the whole length of the Sushumna. Some forms visual shapes of energy flow, such as figure eights or elipses. 
Kriya  Kriya meditation in Tantra involves meditation on the many energy channels of the subtle body, including Sushumna. Within the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, Kriya yoga includes training the senses, inner exploration and meditation on mantras, and surrender into the divine or creative source. 
Kundalini  There are many forms of meditation on Kundalini energy, but a key feature of them all is the meditation either on the Sushumna, or in preparation for that. All of these ultimately lead to meditation in the higher chakras, between the eyebrow center (Ajna) and the crown (Sahasrara). 
OM / Pranava  Meditation on the mantra OM (AUM) and its meanings. 
So Hum (Soham) So Hum is called the universal mantra, and means, "I am that I am." The sound "so" is remembered silently with inhalation, and the sound "hum" is remembered silently with exhalation. If you cup your hands at your mouth and an ear, so as to hear your physical breath flow at the nostrils, you will notice that the inhalation sounds like "so" and the exhalation sounds like "hum". While you want to breathe silently during meditation, you remember the sounds in the field of mind. It is because all of us naturally breathe that the mantra is universal.  
Other mantras Mantra may be used from one's meditative tradition, religion, or other sources. 
Bija mantras Bija or seed mantras are single syllable sounds that are conducive to meditation, such as the seed sounds that go with the various chakras. 
Guru mantra /
Personal mantra
Mantra may be given from one's meditative tradition or teacher. Some give mantra initiation like a prescription matching the student's characteristics. Some mantra initiation involves the transmission of energy along with the mantra, thus empowering the mantra, like planting a seed that can grow with practice. Such a mantra can lead the attention through all of the layers of one's being, ultimately to the source of consciousness from which it arose.  Mantra is used in stages. First, it is a gross word with meaning (uttered aloud or silently). Then, it naturally becomes a constant repetition. Then, the mantra becomes a feeling, and finally it leads to a constant, pervasive awareness. 
Chakras and Mantra
Chakras  Chakra Meditation is done at any of the major chakras, and these meditations can be at gross or subtle levels. The meditation may involve images, sensations, sound, or light. 
Mantra The chakras each have a Bija or seed vibration, as well as secondary mantras. The Bija mantras for the seven major charkras are as follows: 1st=Lam, 2nd= Vam, 3rd=Ram, 4th=Yam, 5th=Ham, 6th=OM, 7th=Silence after OM  
Antahkarana and the four functions of mind 
Antahkarana Meditation on the inner instruments (Antahkarana) includes the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). This is a subtler meditation than that on the Karmendriyas and Jnanendriyas. It is also subtler than meditation on visualized gross objects or the breath. Here, the aspirant has delved into the depths of the mind, not merely to meditate on the objects flowing in the stream, but to explore the mechanisms themselves by which the thought process occurs. It brings one right to the edge of Self-realization. This is an important part of Vedanta and Yoga meditation. 
Manas  Manas is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). It is the lower mind, which processes thinking, and which is the operator of the ten senses, the Karmendriyas and Jnanendriyas described in a meditation method above. 
Chitta  Chitta is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). Chitta is the memory bank, which stores impressions and experiences. To meditate on Chitta is to cultivate the stance of witnessing the stream of thought patterns rising from Chitta and falling back into it. 
Ahamkara  Ahamkara is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). Ahamkara is the I-maker. It is like the ego, except not meaning egotistical. It is the strong wave of awareness that declares, "I am!" Meditation on Ahamkara takes one to the awareness of this I-am-ness, independent of the attachments and aversions stored in the Chitta. 
Buddhi  Buddhi is one of the four functions of mind (Manas, Chitta, Ahamkara, and Buddhi). At a more gross level Buddhi is the aspect of mind that knows, decides, judges, and discriminates. Meditation on this process of discrimination (Viveka) is extremely important. At the very subtle stages of meditation, Buddhi is discovered to be the function that separated the individual from the true Self in the first place. 
The fourth state of consciousness
Turiya  Turiya is the fourth state of consciousness, beyond waking, dreaming, and deep sleep. It is the eternal consciousness that permeates and is witness to these other three. Meditation on Turiya is more of a process of Realization than of one-pointed meditation, such as meditation on an object. 

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This site is devoted to presenting the ancient Self-Realization path of the Tradition of the Himalayan masters in simple, understandable and beneficial ways, while not compromising quality or depth. The goal of our sadhana or practices is the highest Joy that comes from the Realization in direct experience of the center of consciousness, the Self, the Atman or Purusha, which is one and the same with the Absolute Reality. This Self-Realization comes through Yoga meditation of the Yoga Sutras, the contemplative insight of Advaita Vedanta, and the intense devotion of Samaya Sri Vidya Tantra, the three of which complement one another like fingers on a hand. We employ the classical approaches of Raja, Jnana, Karma, and Bhakti Yoga, as well as Hatha, Kriya, Kundalini, Laya, Mantra, Nada, Siddha, and Tantra Yoga. Meditation, contemplation, mantra and prayer finally converge into a unified force directed towards the final stage, piercing the pearl of wisdom called bindu, leading to the Absolute.









Yoga Nidra Meditation CD by Swami Jnaneshvara
Yoga Nidra CD
Swami Jnaneshvara